Collaborations in Biochemistry

Biosciences Eastern And Central Africa


CONCEPT NOTE

Development and validation of a rapid lateral flow test (LFT) for Theileria parva infection in cattle

Esther Kanduma, Lecturer, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Background

East Coast Fever caused by Theileria parva and transmitted by the tick vector Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is considered to be the most important cattle disease in eleven countries in East, Central and Southern Africa including Kenya. Estimates of economic losses due to ECF exceed 300 million US dollars annually (DFID, 2010) ECF devastates the livelihoods of small-scale mixed crop-and-livestock farmers as well as pastoral livestock herders. The disease is a major constraint to livestock productivity and agricultural expansion (Perry et al, 2002; Minjauw & Mcleod 2003) by causing high mortalities and morbidity, particularly in exotic and cross-bred cattle. It is responsible for up to 70% of deaths in indigenous calves in endemically-unstable areas (Homewood et al. 2006; Di Giulio et al. 2009).

 

Conventional diagnosis of T. parva is based on the microscopic demonstration of schizonts in lymphocytes, piroplasms in erythrocytes, clinical signs and pathology, as well as detection of serum antibodies to schizont antigens, using the IFA test (Burridge et al., 1974; Goddeeris et al., 1982). An ELISA based on the recombinant PIM antigen (Katende et al., 1998) is used for detection of Theileria parva antibodies in cattle and is a method of choice for epidemiological studies and large-scale investigations. Several molecular techniques for diagnosing Theileria infections have been developed involving the use of PCR and DNA probes (Bishop et al., 1992; Allsopp et al., 1993; Bishop et al., 1995; Gubbels et al., 1999 J.M. Gubbels, A.P. De Vos, M. Van der Weide, J. Viseras, L.M. Schouls, E. De Vries and F. Jongejan, Simultaneous detection of bovine Theileria and Babesia species by reverse line blot hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol.,  37  (1999), pp. 1782–1789. | View Record in Scopus | Gubbels et al., 1999; Collins et al., 2002, Skilton et al., 2002; Ogden et al., 2003; Odongo et al., 2010). These molecular tests detect the presence of parasite improving the sensitivity and specificity, but do not test for host response to infection, which is possible with antibody detection tests.

Recently, a rapid immunochromatographic strip test (lateral flow device, LFD) for the detection of T. annulata antibodies in cattle has been developed with success (Abdo et al, 2010).  T. annulata is a parasite very closely related to T. parva, and causes tropical theileriosis in cattle in North Africa, the Middle East, India, China and Southern Europe. This Ta-LFD test is easy to perform, sensitive, specific and may be regarded as a suitable diagnostic tool for the detection of tropical theileriosis in cattle under field conditions or in resource-poor laboratories.  In addition, the completely assembled Ta-LFD is stable when stored without refrigeration, thus it should be useful to veterinarians as a point-of-care diagnostic assay. 

The high degree of sensitivity and specificity exhibited by the T. parva PIM-based ELISA indicates that the antigen could be used for the development of a rapid LFD test similar to the Ta-LFD strip test. Given the success with the establishment of the Ta-LFD test, this study intends to develop and validate a lateral flow device based on T. parva PIM antigen for use in rapid ECF detection as a diagnostic assay to support vaccination and other control programmes for ECF, particularly in countries with limited laboratory resources. Recently, the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed) has laid great efforts towards commercializing the production, distribution and delivery of the live T. parva Infection-and-Treatment Method (ITM) vaccine to smallholder farmers (GALVmed, 2010) in East Africa.  The rapid LFD test will be useful in monitoring the performance of the ITM vaccine in the field.

Supervisors:

1.    Dr. Robert A. Skilton- BecA-ILRI Hub, Nairobi. 2.    Dr. Richard Bishop – ILRI, Nairobi.


Link: Development and validation of a rapid lateral flow test (LFT) for Theileria parva infection in cattle

Biosciences Eastern And Central Africa


CONCEPT NOTE

Development and validation of a rapid lateral flow test (LFT) for Theileria parva infection in cattle

Esther Kanduma, Lecturer, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Background

East Coast Fever caused by Theileria parva and transmitted by the tick vector Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is considered to be the most important cattle disease in eleven countries in East, Central and Southern Africa including Kenya. Estimates of economic losses due to ECF exceed 300 million US dollars annually (DFID, 2010) ECF devastates the livelihoods of small-scale mixed crop-and-livestock farmers as well as pastoral livestock herders. The disease is a major constraint to livestock productivity and agricultural expansion (Perry et al, 2002; Minjauw & Mcleod 2003) by causing high mortalities and morbidity, particularly in exotic and cross-bred cattle. It is responsible for up to 70% of deaths in indigenous calves in endemically-unstable areas (Homewood et al. 2006; Di Giulio et al. 2009).

 

Conventional diagnosis of T. parva is based on the microscopic demonstration of schizonts in lymphocytes, piroplasms in erythrocytes, clinical signs and pathology, as well as detection of serum antibodies to schizont antigens, using the IFA test (Burridge et al., 1974; Goddeeris et al., 1982). An ELISA based on the recombinant PIM antigen (Katende et al., 1998) is used for detection of Theileria parva antibodies in cattle and is a method of choice for epidemiological studies and large-scale investigations. Several molecular techniques for diagnosing Theileria infections have been developed involving the use of PCR and DNA probes (Bishop et al., 1992; Allsopp et al., 1993; Bishop et al., 1995; Gubbels et al., 1999 J.M. Gubbels, A.P. De Vos, M. Van der Weide, J. Viseras, L.M. Schouls, E. De Vries and F. Jongejan, Simultaneous detection of bovine Theileria and Babesia species by reverse line blot hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol.,  37  (1999), pp. 1782–1789. | View Record in Scopus | Gubbels et al., 1999; Collins et al., 2002, Skilton et al., 2002; Ogden et al., 2003; Odongo et al., 2010). These molecular tests detect the presence of parasite improving the sensitivity and specificity, but do not test for host response to infection, which is possible with antibody detection tests.

Recently, a rapid immunochromatographic strip test (lateral flow device, LFD) for the detection of T. annulata antibodies in cattle has been developed with success (Abdo et al, 2010).  T. annulata is a parasite very closely related to T. parva, and causes tropical theileriosis in cattle in North Africa, the Middle East, India, China and Southern Europe. This Ta-LFD test is easy to perform, sensitive, specific and may be regarded as a suitable diagnostic tool for the detection of tropical theileriosis in cattle under field conditions or in resource-poor laboratories.  In addition, the completely assembled Ta-LFD is stable when stored without refrigeration, thus it should be useful to veterinarians as a point-of-care diagnostic assay. 

The high degree of sensitivity and specificity exhibited by the T. parva PIM-based ELISA indicates that the antigen could be used for the development of a rapid LFD test similar to the Ta-LFD strip test. Given the success with the establishment of the Ta-LFD test, this study intends to develop and validate a lateral flow device based on T. parva PIM antigen for use in rapid ECF detection as a diagnostic assay to support vaccination and other control programmes for ECF, particularly in countries with limited laboratory resources. Recently, the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed) has laid great efforts towards commercializing the production, distribution and delivery of the live T. parva Infection-and-Treatment Method (ITM) vaccine to smallholder farmers (GALVmed, 2010) in East Africa.  The rapid LFD test will be useful in monitoring the performance of the ITM vaccine in the field.

Supervisors:

1.    Dr. Robert A. Skilton- BecA-ILRI Hub, Nairobi. 2.    Dr. Richard Bishop – ILRI, Nairobi.


Link: Development and validation of a rapid lateral flow test (LFT) for Theileria parva infection in cattle

Consortium For National Health Research (cnhr)



Link: CNHR

Department Of Biotechnology



Link: LUND UNIVERSITY

Department Of Molecular Biology



Link: Vrije Universiteit Brussel

Hokkaido University Research Centre For Zoonosis Control



Link: Hokkaido University Research Centre for Zoonosis Control

Icipe



Link: ICIPE

Icipe


icipe's mission is to help alleviate poverty, ensure food security and improve the overall health status of peoples of the tropics by developing and extending management tools and strategies for harmful and useful arthropods, while preserving the natural resource base through research and capacity building.


Link: icipe

International Livestock Research Institute



Link: ILRI

International Relief & Development



Link: International Relief & Development

Jomo Kenyatta University Of Agriculture And Technology



Link: JKUAT

Kemri



Link: KEMRI

Kemri-wellcome Trust Research Programme



Link: KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme

Kenya Marine And Fihseries Institute


Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) is a State Corporation in the Ministry of Fisheries Development of the Government of Kenya. It is mandated to conduct aquatic research covering all the Kenyan waters and the corresponding riparian areas including the Kenyan's EEZ in the Indian Ocean waters. The Institute was established by an Act of Parliament (Science and Technology Act, Cap 250 of the Laws of Kenya) in 1979 and run by a Board of Management

KMFRI'S Research mandate
The research mandate of KMFRI is defined by article No. 4 of the Science and Technology Act of 1979, Cap 250. The Institute is empowered to carry out research in Marine and Freshwater fisheries, Aquatic biology, Aquaculture, Environmental Chemistry, Ecological, Geological and Hydrological studies, as well as Chemical and Physical Oceanography.


Link: KENYA MARINE AND FIHSERIES INSTITUTE

Kenya Marine And Fisheries Institute


Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KMFRI) is a State Corporation in the Ministry of Fisheries Development of the Government of Kenya. It is mandated to conduct aquatic research covering all the Kenyan waters and the corresponding riparian areas including the Kenyan's EEZ in the Indian Ocean waters. The Institute was established by an Act of Parliament (Science and Technology Act, Cap 250 of the Laws of Kenya) in 1979 and run by a Board of Management

KMFRI'S Research mandate
The research mandate of KMFRI is defined by article No. 4 of the Science and Technology Act of 1979, Cap 250. The Institute is empowered to carry out research in Marine and Freshwater fisheries, Aquatic biology, Aquaculture, Environmental Chemistry, Ecological, Geological and Hydrological studies, as well as Chemical and Physical Oceanography.


Link: KENYA MARINE AND FISHERIES INSTITUTE

Kenya Wildlife Service (kws)



Link: Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS)

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute


Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute is a private, biomedical research organization dedicated to improving public health through research on the prevention, treatment, and cure of respiratory disease.

Equipped with a broad range of technical expertise and a wealth of research capabilities, LRRI studies respiratory health issues of concern to scientists and health care experts in universities, government, industry and patient advocacy groups. We are committed to curing respiratory diseases through research aimed at understanding their causes and biological mechanisms; assessing and eliminating exposures to respiratory health hazards; and developing improved therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics.

The Institute readily opens its unique research facilities to university, government and private collaborators.


Link: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

Parasites, Vectors And Vector-borne Diseases (pvvd)


The PVVD Programme

The PVVD Programme of the ARC-OVI aspires to provide an outstanding contribution to animal health in South Africa and Africa by placing its projects and activities strategically in the fields of parasitic helminths, insect and tick vectors, arbovirology and vector-borne pathogens with regard to the maintenance of a high standard of excellence in research and development, diagnostic parasitology, helminth taxonomy, technology transfer and in-service and formal training as shown by its recent achievements and publications. International and National collaborations enhance our activities.  

The Programme is also the custodian of three National Assets (The Gertrud Theiler Tick Museum, the National Collection of Insect Vectors, and the National Collection of Animal Helminths). Unique to South Africa is the production of Tick-borne disease (TBD) live blood vaccines, which commenced more than 50 years ago and has now also been assigned National Asset status. Research on vaccine development includes Heartwater and wireworm (Haemonchus contortus). 

Fields of interest and/or strengths

  1. In vitro cultivation of various protozoal and rickettsial organisms of domestic and wild antelope species
  2. Tick and helminth biosystematics and ecology
  3. Epidemiology of ticks, tick-borne diseases and helminths related to integrated control
  4. Basic and advanced training in tick identification
  5. Alternative control strategies to combat the development of anthelmintic resistance
  6. Control and prevention of tapeworm-related health problems in animals and man 
 
Program Manager:
 
Dr. Abdala Latif
latifa@arc.agric.za

 


Link: ARC-ONDERSTEPOORT VETERENARY INSTITUTE (ARC-OVI)

Reckitt-benckiser



Link: rb

Research Area: Identifying Polymorphic Genetic Markers To Determine The Diversity Of The Tick Vector Rhipicephalus Appendiculatus For Effective Vaccine Development For Bovine Livestock.


Esther Kanduma

Research area: Identifying polymorphic genetic markers to determine the diversity of the tick vector Rhipicephalus appendiculatus for effective vaccine development for bovine livestock.

Esther Kanduma vividly remembers that milk money earned from the family’s 10 dairy cows paid her school fees until events wiped out the milk market, leaving her family without income. “My mother had to start a trading business to keep us in school,” Esther recalls.

Read her entire profile here

Fellow's Details

  • University of Nairobi
  • MSc
  • Assistant Lecturer and PhD Student
  • Animal and Livestock/Veterinary Sciences

Mentor Details

  • Dr. Vertistine Mbaya
  • Associate Professor
  • Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi

 


Link: African Women in Agricultural Research and Development (AWARD)

The Pirbright Institute


The Pirbright Institute, formerly known as the Institute for Animal Health, is a world leading centre of excellence in research and surveillance of virus diseases of farm animals and viruses that spread from animals to humans. Working to enhance capability to contain, control and eliminate these economically and medically important diseases, the Institute’s highly innovative fundamental and applied bioscience contributes to global food security and health, improving quality of life for animals and people.


Link: The Pirbright Institute

University Of Kwazulu-natal



Link: University of KwaZulu-Natal

University Of Mississippi


The University of Mississippi's mission is to create, evaluate, share and apply knowledge in a free, open and inclusive environment of intellectual inquiry.

As its flagship university, the University of Mississippi serves the state of Mississippi, the nation and the world through teaching, research and public service. We remain committed to fostering leadership and excellence as one of the world’s great research universities.

The University of Mississippi provides an academic experience that emphasizes critical thinking; encourages intellectual depth and creativity; challenges and inspires a diverse community of undergraduate, graduate and professional students; provides enriching opportunities outside the classroom; supports lifelong learning; and develops a sense of global responsibility.


Link: University of Mississippi

University Of Surrey



Link: UNIVERSITY OF SURREY

Usamru Kenya



Link: USAMRU Kenya

Walter Reed Army Institute Of Research


The WRAIR aims to conduct biomedical research that is responsive to Department of Defense and US Army requirements and delivers life saving products including knowledge, technology and medical material that sustain the combat effectiveness of the Warfighter.

The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research prides itself on the numerous partnerships and collaborations with other governmental institutions, pharmaceutical companies, and not-for-profits. Collaborations are accomplished through cooperate research and development agreements (CRADAs), interagency agreements, memoranda of agreement and education partnership agreements.


Link: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research